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Tineid of Korea
General morphology and terminology
  › Adult  head, thoracic appendage, wing and venation, genitalia
  › Immature  egg, larvae, pupa
All rights reserved. Copyright 2005 Tineid of Korea [Reuse]

1. Head
Text-Figure 1. The head of Tineidae [lp 1, 1p 2, lp 3: labial palpus segments]
(a. Opogona thiadelpha, b. Morophaga bucephala, c. Monopis weaverella). * No script

Head vestiture of erect piliform scales on occiput, vertex and frons; scales grouped into turfs, forming more or less conspicuous whorls; head with semi-appressed plate-like scales in Hieroxestinae. Head without externally visible ocelli. Compound eye unmodified, with facets of regular size.

Proboscis present or reduced in various ways; maxillary palpus rudimentary, with 1-3 segments; labial palpus with 3 segments, smooth or with prominet scaling; compound eyes ocelli large; antenna filiform, setiform or clavate, and setaceous or bipectinate in males (less frequently also in females). Coloration of antenna, labial palpus, frons, vertex and pericephalic hairs variable between species, frequently of diagnostic character.

2. Thoracic appendages
Legs usually smooth-scaled except for hind tibia which caries elongate suberect scales on upper surface; foretibial epiphysis present in most genera; tibial spur pattern invariably 0-2-4. The hind tibia is never smooth-scales or, more usually, long piliform scales above and beneath.

3. Wing and venations
The fore wing is elongate and moderately broad to broad, and the hind wing may be of similar width or lanceolate and narrower than the fore wing. In some genera the tip of the fore wing is turned abruptly upwards. The frenulum in the male is a strong bristle, and the retinaculum is a broadly based membranous hook arising between the costa and Sc, or on Sc near its base. The female has a frenulum of usually two, but sometimes three bristles. There is an elongate anal patch of wing-locking microtrichia beneath the fore wing. The venation is relatively primitive, often with a chorda and a simple or branched stem of M present in the distal cell of both wings. In the fore wing all the peripheral veins may be present and run separately to the wing margin, or some may be stalked or absent. R5 terminates on the costa or at the apex. CuP is usually present as a tubular vein, at least near the margin, and 1A + 2A has a strong basal fork. In the hind wing the venation may be reduced slightly in forms with narrower wings.

Text-Figure 2. Wing venations of Tineidae
(a. Nemapogon granella, b. Opogona nipponica, c. Chrypsithyris japonica) * No script

4. Genitalia
male genitalia
Text-Figure 3. Male genitalia of Tineidae (Morophagoides moriutii Robinson) * No script

Male genitalia
Male genitalia of diverse form; vinculum and tegumen not differentiated, saccus usually present, rarely bilobed; uncus usually simple and bilobed, but articulated and hook-like in Tineinae; gnathos usually present, absent in Scardiinae; valval apodemes elongate, robust; aedeagus usually simple and cylindrical, ductus and bulbus ejaculatorius entering and connecting at base. thus without coecum aedeagus.

Female genitalia
The female genitalia are variable in shape. The posterior segments of the abdomen are usually extensible, forming a long ovipositor, when both anterior and posterior apophyses are very long and slender; occasionally an additional pair of posterior apophyses may be present. The sclerites surrounding the ostium bursae are often well sclerotized and sometimes lobed. The ductusbursae is usually slender and membranous, but is sometimes broader and ornamented internally with various sclerotized processes. The corpus bursae is generally fairly large, with or without a signum. The posterior end of the abdomen scales used for covering the eggs.

female genitalia
Text-Figure 4. Female genitalia of Tineidae (Morophagoides moriutii Robinson) * No script

1. Egg
Tineid eggs are of the `flat' type - the micropylar axis is parallel or subparallel to the substrate upon which the egg is laid. Few descriptions are available, but in all the chorion is described as minutely wrinkled. The wrinkles may be overlaid with a pattern of ridges. If present, these may form longitudinal ribbing, or a reticulate pattern of polygons. Different patterns occur in closely related species.

Text-Figure 5. Egg of Tineidae (Tinea translucens Meyrick, 1917), re-illustrated SEM of Arbogast et al. (1989) * No script

2. Larva
Mature larva small to large, ranging from 6-50 mm. Body cylindrical. moderately slender, and naked except for primary setae. Cuticle appearing relatively smooth but normally with minute spinules. Body usually whitish, except for brownish to nearly black head and thoracic plates. Spiracles round, with those on T1 slightly larger and more oval.

Text-Figure 6. Larva of Tineidae (Morophagoides moriutii Robinson)
(a) lateral view; (b) ventral view. * No script

Head Hypognathous, Frontoclypeus usually longer than wide and expending nearly four-fifths to epicranial notch; less elongate in some species and extending no more than one-half. Ecdysial lines extending beyond apex of frontoclypeus to epicranial notch. Stemmata variable, usually 1 or 6 per side, sometimes 0, 2, or 5.

Thorax Pronotum usually distinct. Prespiracular plate usually separate from pronotum; partially fused in Acrolophinae. Procoxal plates usually separate or contiguous, rarely fused. D1 and D2 on all segments, D2 ventral to D1, XD1, XD2 and SD1 in nearly a straight vertical line. L group usually trisetose on T1, bisetose in Scardiinae. SV group bisetose on T1, usually unisetose on T2 and T3 but bisetose in Tineinae. Legs always well developed.

Abdomen D1 and D2 on all segments, with D2 more caudad. SD1 on all segments. SD2 usually small, on all segments except A9. L group typically trisetose. SV group trisetose on A1-6, usually bisetose on A7-9, but normally unisetose on A9 in Tineinae. Anal plate with four pairs of setae. Prolegs present on A3-6 and A10. Ventral crochets almost always in a uniserial ellipse or circle, but in a mesal penellipse in Oinophila. Cuticular spines around planta variable, either present or absent, and if present, then sometimes slightly enlarged (Acrolophinae). Anal crochets in a curved uniserial row.

3. Pupa
The pupa is usually more or less cylindrical, with a well-sclerotized cuticle and appendages weakly fused to each other and to the body. Also the tineid pupa is adecticous and obtect. A frontoclypeal sutures present and maxillary and labial palpi are conspicuous. Abdominal segments 4 to 7 are movable in the male, and 4 to 6 in female. In both sexes the first and second abdminal segments are fused together; in females the seventh, eighth and ninth segments are fused and in males the eighth and ninth. One row, and sometimes two rows, of small posteriorly directed dorsal spines occur on abdominal segments 3 to 8 or 4 to 8, and a row of anteriorly directed dorsal spines or a strong dentate ridge on segment 9-10. Sometimes there is an additional dorsal pair of acute curved hooks or other protuberances on 9-10. The setae are usually long and easily seen. The pupa protrudes from the cocoon or pupal shelter before adult eclosion.

Text-Figure 7. Pupa of Tineidae (Morophagoides moriutii Robinson)
(a: dorsal view; b: lateral view; c: ventral view). * No script
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