Collecting and Rearing of Tineidae 채집 및 사육Collecting Tineid Moth ⋅ Collecting of tineid moth in Korea ⋅ Laboratory rearing
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1. Collecting Tineid MothG.S. Robinson & E.S. Nielsen, 1993. Monographs on Australian Lepidoptera Vol.2 Tineid Genera of Australia (Lepidoptera) pp. 42-44
Most species of Tineidae may be collected successfully at light using conventional techniques - either light - traps or an illuminated sheet. Because of their size, tineids may suffer considerable damage in a light-trap unless high level of a killing-agent are used to rapidly suppress activity by larger insects. Traps that exclude large insects such as the `Common trap' (Common 1986) are more useful than Robinson-pattern MV traps. Collecting from an illuminated vertical sheet permits observations to be made on adult behaviour, although the circumstances are course atypical. It also has the advantage that specimens may be collected alive and in good condition.
The skittish behaviour of most tineids demands a rapid response on the part of the collector when a tineid arrives at the sheet. Many specimen may land, run rapidly for a few seconds and then depart. The reaction of Tineidae to different wavelengths of light may not be uniform. During the Project Wallace expedition to Sulawesi, many more specimens of Tinissa were collected in Rothamsted trap fitted with tungsten lamps than were collected using mercury-vapour light and a sheet. Other Tineidae were more successfully collected at MV than tungsten light. The Tineidae that are caught at light vary qualitatively with the position of that light. Collection on open ridge-tops overlooking the canopy of tropical forest tends to yield the larger and more robust taxa., such as Gerontha and Scardiinae. Smaller and more weakly-flighted genera such as Ectropoceros, Monopis and Epactris are more readly collected in sheltered sites among trees. Low-powered light-traps have been found to be particularly effective in collecting Tineidae on the forest floor in closed-canopy rain forest (Robinson 1984b).
Some Tineidae may be more easily collected by day than the use of light at night. Appropriate techniques includes sweep-netting and beating vegetation, and the use of Malaise traps. Tree-trunks, particularly those with flaking or deeply patterned bark, should be investigated. Tineids may be flushed from knotholes and hollows in trees, and from clefts in rocks (lichen-covered rock is productive of Meessiinae) and from screes by the use of a smoke-generator or bee-smoker. One of the best sources of smoke in such a device is a tightly rolled cylinder of corrugated cardboard of slightly less diameter than the fire cylinder of the smoker. Long lengths of card may be rolled, the loose end stuck down with gummed paper tape, and then cut to length with a sharp knife. Ignition of card rolls is greatly facilitated if one end is painted with potassium nitrate solution and allowed to dry. The roll is then inserted into the smoker with the nitrated end furthest from the nozzle. When lit, the nitrate impregnated card will burn rapidly in the manner of a firework touch-paper. Ideally, smoker should have a wire mesh filter to prevent sparks being blown out. They should on no account be used under conditions in which there is any danger whatsoever of causing wildfires.
Baiting techniques for adult Tineidae are hardly developed. Some species of Nemapogoninae have been attracted to pheromone lures originally intended for Sesiidae and containing various formulations of octadecenyl acetate derivatives. Pheromone lures or other baits are best used in funnel traps; sticky-trap are not recommended for Lepidoptera destined for systematic collections. A simple and cheap funnel-trap may be constructed from a large can (a seven-pound jam tin is ideal) with both ends cut out. The bait or lure is attached to the inner surface of the cylinder. A fine-mesh nylon stocking is knotted at one-half its length and the toe cut off; it is passed through the can so that the knot is at the mid-length of the can. The ends of the stocking are then drawn over the ends of the can and pulled tight. The stocking ends are fastened to the outer surface of the can with large elastic bands. The can should thus have a cone of nylon mesh going in at either end. Three or four entry-holes are then burned at the apex of each cone using a hot cigarette end. The trap should be examined regularly; any insects collected can be removed by slipping the elastic and stocking-mesh off one end of the can.
The greatest amount of information about tineid biology can, of course, be gained by collecting the immature stages and rearing them. Larvae of Nemapogoninae and Scardiinae should be searched for in bracket-fungi and adjacent dead or dying wood. Indications of larval feeding are webbed accretions of fine frass above the larval feeding-tunnels. Lichen on trees or rocks should be searched for the tunnels or cases of Meessiinae; lichen on dead trees and adjacent rotten wood may harbour larvae of Dryadaula. Decaying vegetable matter and plant galls may contain larvae of Erechthiinae or Hieroxestinae. Keratophagous Tineidae may be reared from weathered mammal corpses and carnivore (e. g., fox) faeces, pellets ejected by raptors such as owls, and the feather linings of abandoned bird's nest. Walls of ruined buildings are often the haunt of Praeacedes and Phereoeca species. Termite mounds may contain larvae of Acridotarsa. Other hunting-ground are suggested in the treatments of individual genera below. The use of bait to attract oviposition by Tineidae in SE Asia has been described by Robinson (1988b, 1990). The bait, for Tineinae, consisted of one or two handfuls of feathers pushed down a short length of plastic drainpipe into the end of a knotted length of black fishnet stocking.
The stocking was tied off to form a first-sized ball. The ball was soaked with vitamin B complex in the form of dissolved vitamin tablets, beer dregs, or urine; these vitamins were noted by Hinton (1956) to be a growth stimulant. These balls of feathers have become known as `artificial bird's nest'; their construction and deployment is described in more detail elsewhere (Robinson 1988b, 1990). Artificial nests were exposed for about 8-12 weeks in various locations, wedged in trees, pushed into hollow leg, hung under the eaves of buildings, or placed on the ground. They were then retrieved and returned to the laboratory where infesting insects were allowed to develop. Rearing from these artificial nests included not only large numbers of specimens of several species of keratophagous Tineidae but also several species of their larval parasites. Fairclough (per. comm.) has had comparable success in Britain with a bait composed of shredded tweed mixed with chicken manure, and Jensen (1989) has described the results of baiting for Tineidae in Denmark using plastic net bags filled with feather, wool, hair and fur.
2. Collecting of tineid moth in KoreaIn this study, larvae of fungus moths were collected mainly. The larvae of these species mostly feed on bracket fungi, belong to family Polyporaceae. Therefore, it have to need knowledge of fungi, especially bracket fungi. Bracket fungi is characterized by following points. This fungi is very hard or a little hard and have a tube in the back of a cap(pileus). Most bracket fungi grow on dead wood, but on living wood sometimes.
The larvae feed on feeds hymenium and/or ascospore in tube of bracket fungi. That is organs for breeding in fungi. At collecting, you have to collect both living and dead fungi. Also dead wood lived fungi as enough as you can. Because larvae feed on fungi at immature stage, but in mature stage, larvae feed on dead wood which has been permeated by mycelia of fungi. The larvae bores into the fungi and make an exit hole from which it discharges the frass. But these larval feeding scar don't always appear. Therefore you need to collect fungi as much as possible. Perhaps, the reason why larvae of fungus moth feed on hard bracket fungi almostly is that bracket fungi is perennial, hard, keeping a shape. Therefore it furnish habitat or refuge in larvae.
To collect tineids of feeding fern's sporangia, you have to know time of producing sporangia in expected kinds of fern. In case of finding at unidentified fern, have to collect entire of fern to identify. A Collected larvae, fungi and dead wood or fern should not seal off in vinyl bag. It need to be a little ventilated.
3. Laboratory rearing
G.S. Robinson & E.S. Nielsen, 1993. Monographs on Australian Lepidoptera Vol.2 Tineid Genera of Australia (Lepidoptera) pp. 44 Laboratory rearing part
Hinton (1956) provides a number of references describing laboratory rearing of Tineola. Raising this species is comparatively simple; it is catholic in its choice of food and survives a wide range of temperature and humidity. It can be reared in a confined space through many generations. Successful food substrates include wool with powdered fishmeal and dried yeast, a mixture of fish and meat meals, various high protein cereals, and a mixture of feathers and breakfast cereal. Hinton (1956) has pointed out that keratin is unnecessary for the survival of Tineola. Rearing chambers require protection from mites, and sealing them with filter paper and paraffin wax and covering with a tied cotton cloth has become standard practice (Adams, pers. comm.). Other species of Tineinae are more problematical: althought Tinea translucens and Tinea columbariella are as accommodating as Tineola (Robinson 1979), Chauvin (1977) and Robinson (1979) originally encountered difficulty in rearing Tinea pellionella in the laboratory. Chauvin (pers. comm.) now maintains cultures of this species on pelts of musk-rat at an RH of 40-60%.
Other Tineinae, notably tropical Monopis species, require levels of huminity too high to permit the use of fish or meat meal or high protein in their diet. Some success has been achieved rearing these species on frequently-changed mixtures of feathers and wheat-germ cereal (`Bemax'). Zagulajev (pers. comm.) has reared Nemapogon granella through many generations on mouldy grain. It can also be reared on dried (Chinese) mushroom, but these are very expensive; freeze-dried mushroom would be a much cheaper alternative, and it might prove possible to rear other Nemapogoninae and, possibly, Scardinae on this medium.
ReferencesG.S. Robinson & E.S. Nielsen, 1993. Monographs on Australian Lepidoptera Vol.2 Tineid Genera of Australia (Lepidoptera) pp. 42-44