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Tineid of Korea
Biology of Tineidae
General biology ⋅  Host preference ⋅  Life history
All rights reserved. Copyright 2005 Tineid of Korea [Reuse]
1. General biology
The adults are nocturnal and although many come freely to light some, especially those that are pests of animal fibres, often avoid the light. When distributed, many run around rapidly rather than taking to flight. The larvae feed on a wide range of materials, but especially on decaying wood and bark, dead plant material, fungi, lichens and animal fibres including wood, hair and feathers. Some tunnel in the soil and feed on grass. A few live in shelters formed by joining adjacent green leaves together with silk, or tunnel in galls. The larvae of some of the more specialized species construct portable cases. A few inhabit in the nests of ants and termites, probably as scavengers.

Instead of occupying the typical ditrysian leaf-feeding role, practically all tineid larvae are fungivorous in the sense that their food comprises a substantial proportion of fungal tissue. Tineid larvae have traditionally been categorised as detritophagous, lichenivorous or fungivorous. Detritophagy involves tineids in a wide range of niches in a wide range of biological systems with habits ranging from the mundane to the bizarre, from feeding on fallen leaves to feeding on guano in bat-caves, on mammal corpses, on insect remains in or below spider's webs, and on feathers in bird's nests. Some detritophagous Tineidae are commensals, sharing food resources with social Hymenoptera, Isoptera, and with mammals including man, Synanthropic species include pests of stored food products and of furnishings and fibrics made from wool, fur or feathers. There is strong correlation between the higher taxonomic category to which a tineid belongs and its larval food.

While many tineid larvae build portable cases from which they feed, in a manner analogous to that of Psychidae, case-building is by no means consistent within genera or even within species, and the definition of `case' is blurred by the range of practices observed among Tineidae. The simplest structure is no more than a tubular cocoon constructed at the beginning rather than at the end of larval life. The tube may be attached to the substrate or form a tunnel through it. The tube may provide not only protection but a means of maintaining temperately temperatures or humidity against external environment. Short, fixed tubes are built as shelter for ecdysis by certain Monopis and Tinea species. Fully portable tubular cases of varying degrees of sophistication are built by many Tineinae and Messiinae.

Eclosion involves considerable movement by the pharate adult; the pupa is wriggled and its abdomen contracted and expanded to bring the spines of the abdominal segments to bear against the wall s of the case or cocoon. Once the cocoon is ruptured, the pupa is protruded clear for about half its length and the adult emerges.

Some Tineidae have been recorded as forming mating swarms, notably Nemapogon and some Scardiinae; at least one Monopis needs several cubic meters of free space for successful courtship. Gyratory dance has been recorded in several Tineidae, but this may not have a courtship function. Female pheromones of Tineidae have little studied but responses have been recorded to octadecenyl acetate detrivatives, notably E3Z13-18Ac; two pheromones have been isolated from Tineola, E2-18Al and E2E13-18Al.

Oviposition may involve insertion of eggs into crevices (by species with soft ovipositors) or penetration of host tissue (by species with piecing ovipositors); eggs may be protected with fine hair or scales from the corethrogyne or abdominal apex glued to the pool of mucilage surrounding each egg.

2. Host preference
There is strong correlation between the higher taxonomic category (tribe or subfamily) to which a tineid species belongs and its larval food. The following outline is a generalization, and in many groups there are exceptions, some of them bizarre. These are discussed more fully in the subfamily and generic treatments below. It must be stressed that, with the exception of the Scardiinae and Nemapogoninae, remarkably little is known of the biology of Tineidae that are not synanthropic, and that the picture we have may be distorted by a series of atypical cases.

Two subfamilies are fungivorous, Scardiinae and Nemapogoninae. Larvae of these groups feed in bracket fungi or in dead or moribund wood which has been permeated by the mycelia of such fungi. Dryadaulinae are strongly associated with fungi, feeding in situations in which lichens and fungi are in close proximity, or on bracket fungi, or on sterile mycelia, or among plant detritus (Robinson 1988c). Three subfamilies - Hieroxestinae, Erechthiinae and Hapsiferinae - feed on plant detritus of various forms.
The polyphyletic Myrmecozelinae, as might be expected, exhibit a variety of feeding strategies among which plant detritophagy features strongly. Larvae of Teichobiinae spend their early instars as leaf-miners of fern fronds then enter a sorus and feed externally on the sporangia (Pelham-Clinton 1985). Their feeding on sporangia is well-documented, but their leaf-mining habit is not confirmed by Emmet (1988). Tineinae feed on keratin or on arthropod remains in the form of guano or refuse beneath spider's webs.

Results of this study are summarized as follows.

Species Name Food stuff
F Dryadaula sp. 꼬마버섯좀나방 *Cerrena unicolor (Fr.) Murr. (단색구름버섯)
P Erechthias atririvis (Meyrick) 썩은나무좀나방 bark of Castanea crenata S. et S. et Z. (Fagaceae)(밤나무), bark of Prunus×yedoensis Mat. (Rosaceae)(왕벚나무), canker of Sophola japonica L. (Leguminosae)(회화나무) caused by rust fungus, bark of S. japonica, bark of Robinia pseudo-acasia L. (Leguminosae)(아까시나무), dead branch of Rhus succedanea L. (Anacarpdiaceae)(검양옻나무), dead branch of Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae)(파파야)
P Erechthias sphenoschista (Meyrick) 점박이좀나방 bark of Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini, (Pinaceae)(소나무), decayed bark of Prunus mume Siebold et Zuccarini (매실나무), (Rosaceae), canker of Sophora japonica L., (Leguminaceae)(회화나무) caused by rust fungus
P Dasyses barbata (Christoph) 껍질좀나방 *bark of Malus spp., Prunus spp.
P Opogona sacchari (Bojer) 바나나좀나방 Cactaceae, Dracaena, Strelitzia, Yucca, Alpinia, Begonia, Bougainvillea, Bromeliaceae, Chamaedorea, Cordyline, Dieffenbachia, Poinsettia(Euphorbia pulcherrima), Ficus, Gloxinia, Heliconia, Hippeastrum, Maranta, Philodendron, Sansevieria, Saintpaulia and Capsicum.
P Cephitinea colonella (Erschoff) 긴날개좀나방 dried rice and gall of Quercus acutissima Carruth(상수리나무), old grain, fresh healthy grain
D Gerontha borea Moriuti 누더기좀나방 decayed wood
F, P Nemapogon granella (L.) 곡식좀나방 Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegle(표고버섯), *Coriolus versicolor (L.: F.) Quel.(구름버섯); various grains
F Morophagoides moriutii Robinson 표고버섯좀나방 Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler(표고버섯), *Coriolus versicolor (L.: F.) Quel.(구름버섯)
F Scardia amurensis Zagulajev 잔나비걸상버섯좀나방 Fomes fomentarius (L.: Fr.) Fr.(말굽버섯), Laricifomes officinalis (Fr.) Kotl. et Pouz.(말굽잔나비버섯), *Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.: Wallr.) Pat.(잔나비걸상(잔나비불로초))
F Amorophaga sp. 회색버섯좀나방 Cryptophorus volvatus (C.)(한입버섯)(in type-series)
F Morophaga bucephala (Snellen) 큰점무늬좀나방 *Tyromyces sambuceus (Lloyd) Imaz.(명아주개떡버섯), *Inonotus tomentosus (시루뻔버섯속)
F, P Morophaga fasciculata Robinson 결무늬버섯좀나방 Trametes kusanoana Im.(벌레송편버섯), *Coriolus sp.(구름버섯류), *Phellinus gilvus (Schw.: Fr.)(마른진흙버섯). *Oligoporus caesius (Sc. : Fr .) G. et R.(푸른손등버섯); Malus pumilla (사과), Ficus carica L.(무화과)
F Morophaga formosana Robinson 영지버섯좀나방 Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst(영지버섯)
S, P Psychoides gosari 고사리좀나방 *sporangia and leaf of Dryopteris chinensis (Baker) Koidz., D. saxifraga H.Ito, D. bissetiana (Baker) C. Chr., D. crassirhizoma Nakai (Dryopteridaceae), Athyrium yokoscense (Franch. et Sav) Christ (Woodsiaceae)
A, K Trichophaga tapetzella (L.) 털좀나방 textiles. animal pelts, stored guano
A, K Tinea translucens M. 옷좀나방 wool, feather, hides, skins, bird nest(Hirundo rustica)(Yoshitsugu N., 2007a), other materials of animal origin
A, K Tinea trinotella Th. 세점좀나방 bird's nest, wool (Heath, J., 1985)
A, K Monopis laevigella (Denis & Schiff.) 검은유리창좀나방 hides and skins, guano, bird nests as dendritus, fur and feathers of carcasses of birds and mammals and owls balls (Pelham-Clinton, 1985a)
A, K Monopis pavlovskii Zagulajev 점흰무늬좀나방 Ural owl (Strix uralensis Pallas) (Strigidae) nest's detritus (Yoshitsugu N., 2007a); nest of Parus major L. (Paridae), Buteo buteo (L.) (Accipitridae), feces of Felis catus (L.) (Felidae), carnivore feces, F. catus or Canis familiaris (L.) (Canidae)(Yoshitsugu N., 2007b).
A, K, P, D, F, L Monopis crocicapitella Clemens, 1859 국명미정 bat guano(Byun etc, 2014); dried vegetables, seeds, wool, lichens(HOSTS); fungi, dead wood, fur, feathers, animal remains and plant detritus(A. G. Jones etc, 2003)
A, K Monopis congestella (Walker), 1864 무더기좀나방 Artificial bird's nests, composed of feathers wrapped in nylon net(Robinson, 1988); the feather, fur, pellets, and skin and flesh attached to bird bones in the detribus of Accipiter gentilis (L.) Goshawk(참매) and Strix uralensis Ural Owl(긴점박이올빼미) in Japan (Yoshitsugu et al., 2008); The larvae feed on keratin sources (feather, fur, and pellets) used in the feather traps.(Lee et al., 2016)
A, K Niditinea baryspilas (Meyrick) 암노랑까치머리좀나방 Segments of bonito and various dried materials of animal origin, Ural owl (Strix uralensis Pallas) (Strigidae) nest's detritus (Yoshitsugu N., 2007a); pellets of Accipiter nisus (L.) (Assipitridae)(Yoshitsugu N., 2007b)
L Crypsithyris japonica Petersen & Gaedike 이끼좀나방 the larvae of this genus are known to be lichenophagous (Fletcher, 1933)

F (fungivorous), P (plant-feeding), D (detritophagous), S (spore-feeding), L (lichenivorous), K (keratinophagous), A (animal origin material-feeding); * (new recorded host in this study).

3. Life history
›  Fungivorous(fungus), Detritophagous(rotten wood etc.)
Tineidae (Montescardia, Niditinea), etc ant(Formicidae), beetles(Trogossitidae, Cerambycidae, Cleridae, Scolytidae, Melandryidae, Nitidulidae, Elateridae, Curculionidae, Lucanidae).
decayed wood
›  Animal origin material-feeding(guano, pellet, hair, fur, feather, skin, fish powder, bone etc)
Trichophaga, Tinea, Niditinea, Monopis

›  Plant-feeding(moss, fruit, wood, fern, stored product)
Hieroxestinae(Opogona), Nemapogon granella is plant-feeding in door, but fungivorous in dried fungi.

4. Appearance period
곡식좀나방 성충의 출현시기를 채집기록과 사육기록을 중심으로 표로 정리하였다 (* 채집기록, ? 채집예상, + 사육기록).

종명 2L 3E 3M 3L 4E 4M 4L 5E 5M 5L 6E 6M 6L 7E 7M 7L 8E 8M 8L 9E 9M 9L 10E
Dryadaula sp. 꼬마버섯좀나방 * * * * *
Erechthias atririvis (Meyrick) 썩은나무좀나방 * * * * * * * *
Erechthias sphenoschista (Meyrick) 점박이좀나방 * * * *
Dasyses barbata (Christoph) 껍질좀나방 * * *
Opogona nipponica Stringer 두무늬좀나방 * * * * * * * *
Opogona thiadelpha Meyrick 노랑머리좀나방 * * * *
Wegneria cerodelta (Meyrick) 삼각무늬좀나방 * * * * * * * *
Cephitinea colonella (Erschoff) 긴날개좀나방 * * * * * * * * * * *
Gerontha ampliptera Pono.&Park 점누더기좀나방 *
Gerontha borea Moriuti 누더기좀나방 * * * *
Autochthonus namhaensis (Pono.&Park) 물결무늬좀나방 * * * *
Nemapogon granella (L.) 곡식좀나방 * * * *
Triaxomasia orientanus (Pono.&Park) 갈색무늬좀나방 *
Morophagoides moriutii Robinson 표고버섯좀나방 * * * * * * *
Morophagoides ussuriensis (Caradja) 얼룩무늬좀나방 *
Montescardia kurenzovi (Zagulajev, 1966) 점얼룩좀나방 *
Scardia amurensis Zagulajev 잔나비걸상버섯좀나방 *
Amorophaga sp. 회색버섯좀나방 *
Morophaga bucephala (Snellen) 큰점무늬좀나방 * * * * * * * * *
Morophaga fasciculata Robinson 결무늬버섯좀나방 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
Morophaga formosana Robinson 영지버섯좀나방 * * * * * * *
Psychoides gosari Kim&Bae 고사리좀나방 ? ? ? ? ?
Tinea translucens Meyrick 옷좀나방 + + + + + + + + + + + +
Niditinea baryspilas (Meyrick) 암노랑까치머리좀나방 * * * * * * * *
Monopis pavlovskii Zagulajev 점흰무늬좀나방 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
Monopis laevigella (Denis&Schiff.) 검은유리창좀나방 *
Monopis weaverella (Scott) 노랑머리유리창좀나방 *
Monopis zagulajevi Gaedike 노란등줄좀나방 * * * * * * * *
Crypsithyris japonica Petersen&Gaedike 이끼좀나방 *
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